You’ll admit your deficiency only if your manager seems genuinely interested and concerned; otherwise, you will make up excuses.” 3. • Will proposed solutions first need to be presented to higher management for implementation? (Ed.). Massachusetts Gov. References Borton, T. (1970). Sample Applications/Examples Organizational Narrative From a corporate context, the notion of using story as a tool for organizational knowledge management has been well-documented in the literature (Abma, 2003; Denning, 2001, 2004; Post, 2002; Snowden, 2001; Swap, Leonard, Shields, & Abrams, 2001). The group will have a predetermined amount of time and sessions or may determine these aspects at the first meeting. Dozens of union members were among those blacklisted as a result of HUAC’s activities – 1947, Presidential candidate Ronald Reagan writes to PATCO President Robert Poli with this promise: if the union endorses Reagan, “I will take whatever steps are necessary to provide our air traffic controllers with the most modern equipment available and to adjust staff levels and work days so that they are commensurate with achieving a maximum degree of public safety.” He got the endorsement. This enables those who might not otherwise have a voice to lead the discussion. The union later said the strike was the first ever against a public utility in the U.S. – 1935, Martin Luther King, Jr., leads a march of striking sanitation workers, members of AFSCME Local 1733, in Memphis, Tenn. Violence during the march persuades him to return the following week to Memphis, where he was assassinated – 1968, Ohio makes it illegal for children under 18 and women to work more than 10 hours a day – 1852, Sam Walton, founder of the huge and bitterly anti-union Walmart empire, born in Kingfisher, Okla. While a narrative framework built on simulation technology does address the socio-cognitive and emotive nature of communication during the gathering of the stories, the actual presentation of this data to an audience is still a purely technological process. It used to be said that some people were in the business of working with people and some were in the business of working with facts, figures, and machinery. The additional contextual details present in the narrative version allow management to make a more informed decision as to how to handle the incident and how to formulate a public response. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Many people don’t realize that accepting their challenge areas (some might call it their shadow side) is a vital part of exercising healthy self-regard. People will share what they want, when they are ready, and in a manner that does not violate their sense of themselves. (If you do this, be sure to comply with copyright requirements.) Staley locks out 763 workers in Decatur, Ill. Jerry explains that he plans to share several team performance improvement activities by having the group experience them together. 178 The Handbook of Experiential Learning It remains the case that what makes adventure learning so powerful is that the experiences are visceral and involve some degree of physicality. Some examples of games that I have used regularly include Master Mind ® for logical problem solving, Break the Safe ® for teamwork, and Taboo ® for communication skills. Improv exercises can be wonderful “jolts”—introducing individuals to new ways of thinking as well as wonderful workout routines for exercising the muscles of creativity and teamwork. And the new lens may uncover some unique and viable ideas. See Facilitators Training the Active Training Way (Silberman), 6, 13, 272 Training. (1984). The horizontal line is totally arbitrary, just a visual trick. The training led to marked decreases in serious mining injuries and fatalities – 1899, Some 25,000 silk dye workers strike in Paterson, N.J. – 1934, In what becomes known as the Great Hawaiian Dock Strike, a 6-month struggle to win wage parity with mainland dock workers, ends in victory – 1949, The Tribune Co. begins a brutal 5-month-long lockout at the New York Daily News, part of an effort to bust the newspaper’s unions – 1990, John Sweeney, president of the Service Employees Int’l Union, elected president of AFL-CIO – 1995, After a two-year fight, workers at the Bonus Car Wash in Santa Monica, Calif., win a union contract calling for pay increases, better breaks and other gains. Team-building activities can help raise people’s comfort with asking. August 21 Slave revolt led by Nat Turner begins in Southampton County, Va. – 1831, The Kerr-McGee Corp. agrees to pay the estate of the late Karen Silkwood $1.38 million, settling a 10-year-old nuclear contamination lawsuit. Here we are focusing on practice, so we need to explore the elements that make emotionally meaningful experiences. The combination of cognition and emotion at play in any interpersonal interaction can manifest in surprising ways. He continued to call out numbers, each new standing group representing a different part of the world. Statements Should Be Made Only in Response to Questions Since questions provide so many benefits, this action learning ground rule assists all the group members to make the important transition from advocacy to inquiry. Unfortunately, many trainers have taken this change in mental capacity to mean that concrete learning experiences can now be curtailed. The later likely led to the ethical lapses of the late 90's and the early 21st century in the business world because people are a product of their environment. Experiential exercises are unparalleled in their capacity for achieving the objectives of each stage and contributing to successful implementation. Stymied simulation designers often fall back on the trusty old device of a deck of cards, with outcome-altering directions like, “The company is being sued” or “The workers are on strike.” Such cards invite participants to escape responsibility later by insisting, “We made the right decisions, we were just unlucky.” Limit chance to events that actually occur randomly in the real world. One of the day’s traditional rules: Don’t get your shirt any dirtier than the boss gets his. Custom simulations communicate the what, how, and when of a specific project in an engaging and memorable way. They argued that both theoretical and practical gains can be realized by simultaneously considering both ecological and epistemological factors associated with human learning and behavior. Everyone understands that saying, “yes, but . Teams are then asked to come up with a new way to play a chosen sport (whatever sport you choose), using as much of the junk as they need, as well as play-worthy properties of the environment they’re playing in and the people they’re playing with. For sure, most of us worry about having enough money, and this highly readable book provides a lot of information and advice on the subject: how much we’ll need, how to make the most of what we’ve accumulated, how to accumulate more (even as we get close to retirement) and how to make it last. • Have we considered the impact of our strategies? 8. Are they aware of how action learning is different from task forces and other problem-solving groups? With Freda Hansburg, I have developed a comprehensive training program called the PeopleSmart Workshop (Silberman & Hansburg, 2006). Eight more firefighters were to die of burns suffered in the event – 1973, Fourteen firefighters are killed battling the South Canyon Fire on Storm King Mountain in Glenwood Springs, Colo. – 1994, Two strikers and a bystander are killed, 30 seriously wounded by police in Duluth, Minn. Also part of the pirate’s code, reports Roger Newell: shares of the booty were equal regardless of race or sex, and shipboard decisions were made collectively – 1695, Samuel Gompers, first AFL president, born in London, England. Reflective practice breaks unproductive cycles and opens the door for more options for our behavior. For many participants, this further adds to the challenge of operating in the midst of significant ambiguity. He then asked them to develop positive images of coping with the situation that they would be able to keep in their minds’ eye when the predicted negative scenario began to unfold in the actual work setting. If you keep the whole group together all of the time, it is practical and convenient if everyone moves at the same time at the same pace. 2. Note that the emphasis here is on active engagement. And a new breed of improviser has emerged: one trained in facilitation and instructional design and savvy about the needs and culture of business clients. The trainer explained that an agenda is really only half the preparation for a good meeting, but is where most facilitators end. While classroom learning experiences don’t top leaders’ lists of key developmental events, well-designed experiential learning exercises can provide what most leaders lack on the job—a structured environment in which the challenge of action is supported by the opportunity for facilitated reflection and intensive, constructive feedback on both strengths and areas for development (Guthrie & King, 2003). Now, the learners really do draw from their own experiences. Forty years later to the day, Pope Pius XI issues ‘Quadragesimo anno,’ believed by many to be even more radical than Leo XIII’s – 1891, U.S. Supreme Court rules in favor of Samuel Gompers and other union leaders for supporting a boycott at the Buck Stove and Range Co. in St. Louis, where workers were striking for a 9-hour day. “So where do you think you really are on this journey? Mail service is virtually paralyzed in several cities, and President Nixon declares a state of emergency. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30(3), 401–411. The seven basic plots: Why we tell stories. In small groups, participants have the opportunity for continuing practice of vital skills and for discussion of common obstacles for success. Returning again to the emergency personnel training scenario, the use of the video allowed the learners to review their own performance. If you come across (or write) a better definition, please let me know. These skills or abilities do not occur in a vacuum and need to be related to the business at hand to make the training relevant. In setting up the physical space for the simulation, status differences between positions are emphasized by office differences for more senior roles. Thirteen are formed in the state over a 25-year period. Participants are instructed to bring their “whole selves” into their positions and behave as they normally would “back home.” The feedback managers receive is enriched because it is focused on behavior that is most likely experienced by others in their own work settings. Likewise, the group has built positive memories and a sense of “can do” or momentum for the upcoming project. Use your answers to these questions to influence your client on this point, if appropriate. The second phase of the model, Implementation, deals with rolling out the change throughout the organization. This is followed by “the experience of debriefing” and why this perspective matters when debriefing experience. In the first, five volunteers are asked to plan a company picnic or holiday party. Ten of the 11 deaths on the job came when safety netting beneath the site—the first-ever use of such equipment—failed under the stress of a scaffold that had fallen. Support, on the other hand, provides safety and a sense of equilibrium in the midst of development and change. Then the recipients of the message in the pairs are asked to talk with the group as a whole about their experience. The boys had to pay publishers up front for the newspapers; they were successful in forcing the publishers to buy back unsold papers – 1899 (Kids at Work: Your heart will be broken by this exceptional book’s photographs of children at backbreaking, often life-threatening work, and the accompanying commentary by author Russell Freedman. . Having spent nearly forty years designing experiential simulations, I believe simulations are the most likely teaching method to create those “Aha!” moments. As founder and principal of Medi-Legal Consulting, she provided legal consultation to North Carolina law firms and developed custom programs for healthcare provider organizations throughout the state. The image of the funnel and its filters clearly aligns the model with Borton’s analytic mode but provides little encouragement for divergent or contemplative thinking as part of the debriefing process. I recommend matching the implementation of the design to the stage of development—low-tech early, then more fully realized later on. Sales plummet. No Contract, No Peace! Procedural Simulations are dress rehearsals of real-world events, such as making a technical presentation to a client, troubleshooting a piece of equipment, or providing emergency technical assistance. Hamilton, MA: Project Adventure, Inc. Sperry, R. W. (1980). All I needed to do was start speaking to the people I would meet every day. Whenever appropriate, ABLAs encourage interaction and discussion between learners and coaches to improve future performance. Encourage them 220 The Handbook of Experiential Learning • • • • • • • • to grapple with the ambiguity. Terrence and his father’s opera Tryillias was accepted for a nomination for the 2004 Pulitzer prize in music. “Not all council members had personal experience with diversity issues. “We’ve got lots to talk about, people, particularly what went wrong. Even my family was caught off guard by the quality and depth of relationships I developed with a bunch of total strangers. that’s their problem.” “Yes, but . This approach gives you the most control over the script, so the dramatic tension you want to create is easily obtainable. Accordingly, we now announce with sadness that the operations of UCS as it currently exists will close down at the end of August of this year. And participants will experience the rush and excitement in much the same way as with an outdoor experience. Attucks is considered the first casualty in the American Revolution – 1770, United Shoe Workers of America merge with Amalgamated Clothing & Textile Workers Union – 1979, The Sailors’ Union of the Pacific, a union of mariners, fishermen and boatmen working aboard U.S. flag vessels, is founded in San Francisco – 1885, The Knights of Labor picket to protest the practices of the Southwestern Railroad system, and the company’s chief, high-flying Wall Street financier Jay Gould. They will understand supply chains through managing a real or imaginary one. In the single-problem group, the group members focus all of their energies on solving that problem. We can uncover patterns of relevance and encounter greater resonance between others’ experiences and our own by deliberately maintaining a diverse index. He says that intercultural trainers must know, among many other things, the psychological and social dynamics of the intercultural experience. In learning technology applications, you need two types of expert review, one on the subject matter and another on the learning interactions. I reminded her of the following model I had shared with them earlier: The Handbook of Experiential Learning Perceived Difficulty of a Situation 182 Panic Zone C Zone Drone Zone Perceived Ability to Handle Situation Note: Each performance zone encompasses a different type of behavior. • Training must not contain elements likely to induce high levels of emotional response or psychological stress in some participants. This creates an environment of trust that is essential for the deep work of change. But it’s easy to create one that is not as effective as it could be. Del Mar, CA: Simulation Training Systems. Invariably, their descriptions are ridden with labels 278 The Handbook of Experiential Learning (“he is arrogant, opinionated, and sloppy”). The trainer did several things to approximate the situation the workers would face as closely as possible. Y CHAPTER TWENTY EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING IN INTERCULTURAL TRAINING Sandra Fowler and Judith Blohm Sandra M. Fowler has been an intercultural program manager, consultant, researcher, and trainer for over three decades. Here you see an image of a bubbleball adjacent to a plastic shopping bag. They learned that, even though they were uncomfortable responding to behaviors in highly emotional situations, they could do it. Nancy explains, “I was impatient with the driver of the car in front of me, an Asian woman. Games that involve getting the whole group from A to B are often well-suited to Action Replay. “Learning style” is only one of many possible explanations—and the wise facilitator will already know the importance of ensuring that debriefings result in full engagement of all learning styles, no matter what the profile of people’s learning style preferences might be. They relented and returned to work six months later – 1950, Insurance Agents Int’l Union and Insurance Workers of America merge to become Insurance Workers Int’l Union (later to merge into the UFCW) – 1959, Oklahoma jury finds for the estate of atomic worker Karen Silkwood, orders Kerr-McGee Nuclear Co. to pay $505,000 in actual damages, $10 million in punitive damages for negligence leading to Silkwood’s plutonium contamination – 1979, Two hundred sixteen miners die from an explosion and its aftermath at the Fraterville Mine in Anderson County, Tenn. All but three of Fraterville’s adult males were killed. . To Compute or Not to Compute, That Is the Question! Seelye, H. N. We show the first twenty-five minutes of the film, Frontline: A Class Divided, one of the most frequently used films in diversity training in the United States. This made it very difficult to keep her from falling too far. Tell me a story: Narrative and intelligence. These objectives are to communicate complex ideas and encourage action, to communicate personal details, to communicate values, to encourage group work, to tame or neutralize gossip, to share information and knowledge, and to lead and provide 48 The Handbook of Experiential Learning visionary focus (p. 150). Participants also learn whether their decisions were collaborative, individual, strategic, tactical, or solutionexpansions (decisions that involved creative or unusual decision making). Instead, the learning experience focuses on individual, group, and organizational performance. A lower court had forbidden the boycott and sentenced the unionists to prison for refusing to obey the judge’s anti-boycott injunction – 1906   The Library Employees’ Union is founded in New York City, the first union of public library workers in the United States. He went on to become a founder of the United Auto Workers and was president of the Congress of Industrial Organizations when it merged with the AFL in 1955 – 1907   A 3-week strike in Woonsocket, R.I., part of a national movement to obtain a minimum wage for textile workers, resulted in the deaths of three workers. Eight thousand workers labored on the project; 77 died – 1941, Eight hundred striking workers at Brown & Sharpe in Kingstown, R.I. are tear-gassed by state and local police in what was to become a losing 17-year-long fight by the Machinists union – 1982, A 32-day lockout of major league baseball players ends with an agreement to raise the minimum league salary from $68,000 to $100,000 and to study revenue-sharing between owners and players – 1990, A bitter six-and-a-half-year UAW strike at Caterpillar Inc. ends. In the real world, the pressures of life will make most tasks feel critical, and you want to enhance the learning experience to similarly embrace a sense of urgency and importance. Taking their statements personally allows you to be a victim. I prefer to think of it being differentiated by the notion of a certain amount of adventure being included in the experience. In-country training has some advantages, if it is possible. Good assessment can point out gaps between one’s current behavior and skills and desired behavior states or skill levels, and as such, it can point to key areas for learning and change (Browning & Van Velsor, 1999). Alpha Test Your Simulation in Low-Risk Circumstances Both alpha and beta testing are critical to the development of even simple simulations, but confusing them can be disastrous. It is your job to maintain the most optimal environment. The law weakened unions and let states exempt themselves from union requirements. Some 5,000 actors attended a victory gathering the following day at Hollywood Legion Stadium; a day later, SAG membership increased 400 percent – 1937, Four thousand garment workers, mostly Hispanic, strike for union recognition at the Farah Manufacturing Co. in El Paso, Texas – 1972 (The Union Steward’s Guide, Spanish 3rd edition: This bound, 169-page compilation contains more than 130 articles from the Spanish language edition of Steward Update newsletter, read today by more than 80,000 stewards across North America. All they need to do is commit to regular reflection about their work. When all three goals have been hit, you’re ready to release and move to a maintenance phase. Trainers must have excellent presentation skills, as well as the flexibility to sense a group’s needs and respond in the moment. Two of the better-known providers of custom conceptual maps are Root Learning (www.rootlearning.com) and XPLANE (www. Acquiring skills requires more than “monkey see, monkey do.” With roleplaying exercises that progress from safe to highly challenging, participants can develop the confidence that enables them to employ a skill effectively in a wide variety of situations. Remember, the best way to test the effectiveness of a training game or simulation is to play it! San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer. Typical “blended learning” wraps e-learning before (and potentially after) face-to-face sessions to get content presentation out of the way and not take that valuable (and often expensive) interpersonal interaction. Reference O’Mara, J. They had to find it and figure out the route. At the end of each session, the action learning coach assisted the group members in reflecting on the application and development of the competencies they had chosen to develop. For example, I write about the success Carlos found in growing his assertiveness in my book, Life’s 2% Solution. We might care about new attitudes or values that help us understand what we should be doing. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. THE CARB MODEL Alignment and goal agreement Commitment to the team and each other Relationships among team members Behaviors and skills is a complex thing, several of our other CARB factors will aid in the development of this commitment. Data are generated during both the simulation and the debriefings and provide ample opportunity for assessment. “Damn, I knew it . For instance, because Looking Glass, Inc.® is structured hierarchically, some participants enact strongly hierarchical orientations in their own behavior and do not hold meetings with skip level managers. When the partners needed help clearing the land, the Dominican president sent troops to forcibly evict stubborn, impoverished tobacco farmers and fishermen who had lived there for generations, according to Kwitney’s expose – 1973, Minneapolis general strike backs Teamsters, who are striking most of the city’s trucking companies – 1934, U.S. Supreme Court issues Mackay decision, which permits the permanent replacement of striking workers. Controlling for fear of shame and loss of face is a major factor in the success of training for trainees from cultures where this is a powerful norm. • Stories that are fun and familiar: In Blink, Malcolm Gladwell describes the immediate and unconscious reaction humans have to the unfamiliar by highlighting the intriguing behind-the-scenes stories from familiar products. . An exercise in which the group will score higher than any individual (most survivor exercises work this way) will give participants the feel for group process that some cultures value over individual decision making. Finally, and most importantly, those individuals who are not part of the role play itself still have the role of the observer to carry out. Officially, the recession lasted from December 2007 to June 2009, but unemployment still hovers around the 7 percent mark today – 2008, Six miners striking for better working conditions under the IWW banner are killed and many wounded in the Columbine Massacre at Lafayette, Colo. Out of this struggle Colorado coal miners gained lasting union contracts – 1927, The 1,700-mile Alaska Highway (Alcan Highway) is completed, built during World War II on the order of President Roosevelt. Action learning and leadership. These days the landscape looks different on both sides. Debriefing skills and methods can be useful in all such roles, but the emphasis of this chapter is on debriefing in group settings. Sometimes, it is important for participants to have Experiential Learning in Interpersonal Skill Development 283 a mental picture of what they are to do. AI Communications—The European Journal on Artificial Intelligence, 4(2/3), 109–112. It’s hard to find a training subject more amenable to experiential learning. The facilitator then leads a discussion on what can be done to help everyone be alert to the assumptions and stereotypes we make that impact how we treat others. Feedback intensive programs. On-the-Job Training is used both formally and informally in mastering technical skills. The UNtraining: Untraining White Liberal Racism (www.untraining.org) has as its mission providing tools and resources to white people who are motivated to investigate their white conditioning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. When the simulation got under way, however, all this authenticity quickly buried our good intentions. For example, participants will understand project management concepts best through actually managing a small project. The alternatives were tested as well as refined. that specifically focuses on names to break the ice and establish rapport. If you determine to use one of these activities, consider that there is a great opportunity to debrief the activity to draw important lessons from the experience. Use: What’s the best way to talk about our most important concerns without revealing our bottom line? Case studies are particularly useful for helping participants understand what can happen in a foreign culture, particularly when they are followed by a role play that gives them a chance to try out different behaviors. In this section, we explain the fundamental properties and theories of narratology and explore the implications of such a paradigm for addressing issues in experiential learning. Let’s get people to know each other better, let’s build a sense of camaraderie. One of the learners later reported that, as a consequence of receiving feedback on asking the individual to be evacuated whether he or she could walk, he did that in a real-life situation. Instead, we used a panel of actual marketing experts to evaluate the plans and assign each plan a share of the market. The Taft-Hartley Labor Management Relations Act, curbing strikes, is vetoed by President Harry S. Truman. 6. Is your exercise going to focus more on thinking and discussion? Transfer of skill from a computer game trainer to flight. She now knows some things about bike riding that I didn’t know until I was over forty years old! We discover what questions to ask or what stories to tell in order to stimulate the storytelling of others by watching for cues in their words and actions. Moreover, they are best learned through experience. Founder of The StoryNet, Kat is the co-director of The Thiagi Playhouse. I know from my experience it is up to the working people to save themselves. Ask participants to share their stories with the group the next day. Some participants will protest, “It’s only a game,” while others will take it very seriously. Participants who by cultural background or personal preference are accustomed to learning theory and factual information will need to start with what they know about the theory on which an activity is based. The purpose of an alpha test is to evaluate the basic assumptions of the simulation, its overall structure, and the logic of its progression. Since Reg Revans first introduced action learning in the coal mines of Wales and England in the 1940s, there have been multiple variations of action learning. You can then introduce debriefing methods that will help them to explore their inquiries in ways that take them back into the experience. Establish and observe rules governing confidentiality and disclosure. If it was an emotionally charged set of stories, feel free to ask a few follow-on questions about one or more of the stories. Developing a facility with analogies, metaphors, word pictures, and visuals are a few of the subcomponents of this competency. And I’d better hide my failure to boot,” we would not have that beloved little tool that has become such a staple of our professional lives. Members ask questions to gather more information about the problem or task. Experiencing a Park Li simulation is like filling a test tube with all of the ingredients required for conflict and then stepping back to see what emerges. Next, state how you plan to deal with each problem, numbering each solution to agree with the problem it addresses. Rather, it is an attempt to figure out the best way to deal with people instead of writing them off or being angry with them. Because of the UNtraining I was able to be polite to her, stay non-defensive, calm, understand her reaction, and not be rude, like a white person can be in these circumstances. : 200384513 OTHER BROOMFIELD Operator: Noble Energy Inc Facility: BROZOVICH Description: complainant entered battery site and filmed producer releasing gas from thief hatch Resolution: Jim Precup went to the battery site … As this example shows, the concept of GURU can be introduced in a way that dramatizes its value for reflecting in the moment. Another exercise I use to build this skill is to ask participants to role play giving a key person they are in a relationship with negative feedback. Other times, the reason is optimism. 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